’10:04’ by Ben Lerner – A Novel About Writing a Novel

’10:04’ by Ben Lerner    (2014) – 241 pages


The technical term for ’10:04’ by Ben Lerner is that it is a lame metafiction. According to Dictionary.com, Meta-fiction is “fiction that discusses, describes, or analyzes a work of fiction or the conventions of fiction.”  Or, more simply, metafiction is a fiction that deals with writing fiction.

The word MetaFiction sounds like one of those pretentious modern terms, but the first great metafiction novel goes all the way back to ‘Don Quixote’ by Cervantes in the early seventeenth century.  In ‘Don Quixote’, Don Quixote’s friend advises him how to make his story look like other tales of chivalry, and thus the first great metafiction was born.  I love the games that Cervantes plays with his knight Don Quixote and his trusted squire Sancho Panza.

A more recent example of a metafiction that I admire is ‘Dublinesque’ by Enrique Vila-Matas in which he and some of his author friends go to Dublin to celebrate Bloomsday.  ‘Dublinesque’ is one of the most charming novels ever written.  Another great work of metafiction is ‘Pale Fire’ by Vladimir Nabokov which dazzles us with its hunor and depth.

However I do not find all metafiction so entertaining.  For example, this year I found ‘My Struggle – Book I’ by Karl Ove Knausgaard to be mundane and essentially humorless, a long slog.

But I’m here today to review ’10:04’.  The novel is about Ben Lerner writing a novel which happens to be ’10:04’.

 “I was there at the age of thirty three because a doctor had discovered incidentally an entirely asymptomatic and potentially aneurismal dilation of my aortic root that required close monitoring and probable surgical intervention and the most common explanation of such a condition at such an age is Marfan, a genetic disorder of the connective tissue that typically produces the long-limbed and flexible.” 

 Please take the above sentence, because I don’t want it.  Lerner may be making some sly comment on medical lingo.  He also may be using these words to obtain precision.   However I found this sentence and the many other sentences like this in the novel off-putting.

There’s a lot of medical jargon in the book. I was not delighted by the several pages devoted to the author’s wisdom tooth extraction.  Nor did all the other pages devoted to the author’s various medical procedures do anything for me. Then there is the sperm donation scene.  That shtick is a stale old comedy routine.

The danger for Ben Lerner is that he may come across as an insufferable hypochondriac and not very funny.  When he talks about his book, he talks about the huge advance the publishers will be paying him.  Contrast that with the sparkling insights expressed by the various writers in ‘Dublinesque’.   Instead of “a nice crossing of reality and fiction” which is probably what the author intended, many of the scenes are distinctly unpleasant.

The novel begins and ends with a bad storm in New York City.  The New York presented here is pretty much the standard issue New York with no original thoughts or insights regarding the city.  The way Lerner talks about the storms sounds like an extension of his hypochondria.

’10:04’ is somewhat of a diffuse hodgepodge with a story thrown in here and a poem thrown in there.  The only character that comes across distinctly is the Author himself, and I found the Author somewhat repellent.



Vera Caspary and ‘Laura’

‘Laura’ by Vera Caspary   (1943) – 194 pages


Vera Caspary was a strong independent woman who had a highly successful career as a novelist and screen writer.  She wrote eighteen novels and ten screenplays.    In her autobiography ‘The Secrets of Grown-Ups’, she wrote:

“This has been the century of the woman, and I know myself to have been a part of the revolution.  In another generation, perhaps the next, equality will be taken for granted.  Those who come after us may find it easier to assert independence, but will miss the grand adventure of having been born in this century of change.”

 It was fairly easy for her to get into the screenwriting business in the 1930s, because the studios paid next to nothing for writers in those days.  She had her fights with Hollywood directors and producers, but she hung in there.  In the 1950s she was gray listed by Hollywood for her political views, but she continued on with her productive writing career.  In her seventies, Caspary taught writing workshops to prisoners in the New York Women’s House of Detention.

In her autobiography, she sums up her life as follows:

 “Everything good in my life has come through work: variety and fun, beautiful homes, travel, good friends, interesting acquaintances, the fun of flirtations and affairs, and best of all the profound love that made me a full woman.” 

 The novel ‘Laura’ is her most famous work by far, but I suspect there are other novels among her writings that would be well worthy of attention.

Perhaps the best way to describe the novel ‘Laura’ would be to call it a psychological mystery thriller.  Whereas the classic movie ‘Laura’ is usually classified as a film-noir, the novel is more astute and better reflects Caspary’s views on the relations between men and women.  Although Caspary had her battles with director Otto Preminger in the portrayal of Laura, she praised the film warmly in her autobiography for its nuanced direction.

In ‘Laura’, Caspary uses a technique of multiple narrators first used by Wilkie Collins in ‘The Woman in White’  The three main narrators are the aesthete columnist Waldo Lydecker, the policeman Mark McPherson, and the advertising executive Laura Hunt herself.   The other main character is Shelby Carpenter, Laura’s fiancé.

Laura Hunt is highly successful in the advertising business, and she makes her choices on her own despite the spurious manipulations of the men around her.  As Vera Caspary also started out in advertisement writing during her early days, it is a good bet she based Laura Hunt on herself.

laura-otto-preminger (12)I found ‘Laura’ to be a good read with a lot of twists and turns that make the story fun.  It also contains many subtle and clear-eyed insights into the relations between men and women.  Caspary’s depiction of the policeman Mark McPherson is particularly interesting as he is shown not to be the hard-boiled detective type at all, but rather someone who spent 14 months reading books and thinking about the world while recovering from a bullet wound. With his literary enthusiasms and sensitivity and straightforward manner, Mark McPherson proves himself to be someone worthy of Laura Hunt’s interest and attention.

“I’m not nearly as interested in writing about crime as I am in the actions of normal people under high tension.”  – Vera Caspary

 The more I study the life, writing, and views of Vera Caspary, the more I am intrigued by this extraordinary woman.


‘All the Light We Cannot See’ by Anthony Doerr – Child-Like Wonder

‘All the Light We Cannot See’ by Anthony Doerr  (2014) – 530 pages


‘All the Light’ has become quite a phenomenon which probably has not been commented on enough.  Who would have expected to see Anthony Doerr on the best seller lists?, but there he is.  Currently the Minneapolis Public Library has a list of 648 people waiting to check out this novel.  It is not often that you have a highly literary writer score such a success.

Now that I’ve read ‘All the Light’ I am ready to analyze this book’s success.  First I want to give you a fine example of the style of the writing.

“What mazes there are in this world, The branches of trees, the filigree of roots, the matrix of crystals, the streets her father re-created in his models . . . None more complicated than the human brain.”

 This exhilarating observation is from the blind French girl Marie-Laure who is one of the two main characters in the novel.  We meet up with Marie-Laure in the year 1934 at the age of six when she suddenly goes blind.  Her father, the master locksmith at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, builds intricate models of the streets near their home that Marie-Laure can use to find her way around the neighborhood.

The other main character is a German boy, Werner Pfennig, who is about the same age as Marie-Laure.  He develops an interest in radios at an early age due to a scientific broadcast from France hosted by Marie-Laure’s grandfather. His acuity with electronics earns him a scholarship to an elite Nazi school.

Anthony Doerr explains large parts of the surrounding world through these two young intelligent characters.  There is a child-like wonder to the writing which describes the natural miracles around us in short breathtakingly beautiful sentences.  The writing here is exquisite. We even see the severe brutality of the Nazis through the eyes of the child Werner.



In 1940, the Germans invade France (thanks to an assist from the Duke of Windsor and Wallis Simpson?), so Marie-Laure and her father flee to the walled seaside city of Saint-Malo.  It is here that Marie-Laure finally meets Werner in 1944 as the Allies land in France and are ready to re-take Saint-Malo.

To what do we attribute the success of ‘All the Light’?  As I’ve said before, the writing about nature is most stunning.  The whole approach of the style and the plot has a child-like clearness.  The plain story has the feel of a folk tale passed down from generation to generation.  Plausibility is not a major consideration.  Credibility is sacrificed for enchantment.

But man or woman cannot live on enchantment alone.  While reading ‘All the Light’, I longed for some world-weary cynicism like you would get from Graham Greene.  Yes, the world is wondrous and a miracle, but there is also a lot of bad stuff in this world starting with the Nazi point of view.  I longed for some dirty realism while reading ‘All the Light’.  I wanted a more complex adult view of things.

Still it is nice to see that a literary novel and Anthony Doerr are making the best seller lists.

‘Last Night at the Blue Angel’ by Rebecca Rotert

Last Night at the Blue Angel by Rebecca Rotert (2014) – 325 pages


‘Last Night at the Blue Angel’ is a show business novel, albeit small-time show business. Naomi Hill is a singer in a Chicago jazz nightclub, the Blue Angel, trying to make it to the big time. She is also the single mother of ten year old Sophie. Sophie is devoted to her mother,

Mother is a singer. I live in her dark margin.”

Sophie goes to her mother’s shows but must stay at a spot marked ‘X’ backstage which is designated for her. She does her school homework while her mother performs.

The year is 1965. Naomi and Sophie live in an old hotel near the Blue Angel. The novel alternates between Sophie describing her current life with her mother and Naomi telling how she arrived at this Chicago nightclub in the first place. Whereas the daughter Sophie is steady and sensible, her mother Naomi is flighty and self-involved. Sophie worships her mother but can see only too clearly that Naomi has other things on her mind such as her music and friends. It is no secret that family friend Jim is deeply in love with mother Naomi, and he is always there to make sure that Sophie is provided for. Jim is like a surrogate father taking care of the everyday school details that her mother tends to forget. Naomi is so caught up in her music career, she takes Jim for granted and sometimes does not give Sophie her full attention.

Rebecca Rotert is a former singer herself, and the scenes that take place in the Blue Angel capture the nightclub life well, but what gives this novel its edge is the voice of the daughter Sophie. I don’t always care for child narrators, but in this case it works. The best way to let us see this girl’s situation is through her own eyes. Sophie is not popular in her school and has no friends until Elizabeth arrives, but other people’s racial attitudes get in the way of their friendship. Also the fact that Sophie’s mother is a nightclub singer does not sit well with Elizabeth’s family.

We get the story of Naomi’s small town family in Kansas and her escape to Chicago and a singing career, but this background is nowhere near as vivid as the Chicago story. Two of Naomi’s friends from Kansas, cross-dresser Rita and the Catholic nun Sister Idalia, follow Naomi to Chicago. The pieces fit together a little too neatly as Sister Idalia is now Sophie’s teacher in parochial school, but this does not detract from the story.

The mother/daughter relationship at the center of the novel resonates with emotion as Sophie starts to question some of her mother’s behavior which she formerly accepted unconditionally. She is growing up but is still vulnerable. You will be moved by ‘Last Night at the Blue Angel’.


‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ by Richard Flanagan

‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ by Richard Flanagan   (2014) – 334 pages


The father of author Richard Flanagan was a prisoner of war to the Japanese and a survivor of the building of the Siam-to-Burma Railway during World War II.  Flanagan’s new novel ‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ is about the harrowing construction of that railroad among other things.

In 1942, the Japanese had just conquered the country of Burma from the British.  They saw Burma as a good launching point for an attack on India, but it was difficult to get supplies to Burma.  Allied forces were bombing the sea routes.  Thus Japan decided to build a railway from Bangkok in Siam (now Thailand) to Rangoon (now Yangon) in Burma (now Myanmar).  All of the Japanese men were fighting the war, so they used men from Southeast Asia and Allied prisoners of war as slave labor to build the railway.

The working conditions for building the bridge were atrocious and at least 100,000 men died during the fifteen months it took to build the railway.  The project was ill-supplied. Not enough food was available, so the men had to work while near starvation.  Huge epidemics of cholera, dysentery, and malaria swept through the workers.  Beyond that, dozens of men were beaten to death by their Japanese and Korean overseers.

There was another novel and movie about this railroad, ‘The Bridge Over the River Kwai’, which was hopelessly unrealistic and naïve in its treatment of the situation.  ‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ captures its full horror and desolation.

‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ is mainly about the Australian prisoners of war who had to work as slave laborers building the railroad as well as their Japanese and Korean overseers.  Dorrigo Evans is a doctor and officer, so he must deal with the illness and injury of the Australians.  Some of the scenes in the novel are horrific.

Flanagan begins each section of the novel with a short piece of Japanese poetry.  The lines from the last section serve as a good description for the entire novel.

In this world

we walk on the roof of hell

gazing at flowers.


 Not the entire novel is about building the railroad which is  ‘the roof of hell’ part of the novel.  There are also large sections taking place in Australia with Dorrigo Evans before and after the war.  These are the ‘gazing at flowers’ parts of the novel.  Early in the novel Dorrigo Evans has an intense love affair with his uncle’s wife Amy.   Somehow there does not seem to be much point to these love scenes beyond showing that the world is not all misery and heartbreak.  But these sensuous scenes also serve to make Dorrigo’s heroism seem more ambiguous later.

However ‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ is a complex novel, and a lot of its power derives from that it does not present its scenes as cut and dried.   The parts of this novel may not fit together neatly, but that may be a good thing as we struggle to a deeper meaning of events.   Richard Flanagan goes to great lengths to understand the mindset of these Japanese captors who treated their prisoners and workers so cruelly.  In today’s world we have seen even the United States routinely using torture when dealing with its political prisoners.

‘The Narrow Road to the Deep North’ is a fine example of a novel that is open-ended, that preserves the mysteries of life and has no easy answers for them.


‘Dare Me’ by Megan Abbott – Raucous Relentless High School Cheerleaders

‘Dare Me’ by Megan Abbott    (2012) – 290 pages


Megan Abbott had fallen under my radar until now.   It is not too surprising that a novel about a girls’ high school cheerleading team would fall under my radar.  What I didn’t realize is that this isn’t young adult fiction by any stretch of the imagination.  This is brutal noir crime fiction.

‘There’s something dangerous about the boredom of teenage girls.’ 

 Usually I will read an author’s current work to review in order to be as up-to-date as possible.  However, after researching the crime fiction writer Megan Abbott, I decided to read her quintessential novel ‘Dare Me’ first rather than her newest one ‘The Fever’.

What does a hard-boiled murder mystery novel involving high school cheerleaders sound like?  “‘Give us some handsprings, bitches!’, Beth’s voice boomed at us.”  Beth was the captain of the cheerleading team until the new adult coach Colette French arrives and decides there isn’t going to be a squad captain anymore.  Since Beth had always been the captain of everything since grade school, the coach’s decision does not sit too well with her.  To say the least.

I know absolutely nothing about the cheerleading world, but I am quite sure that Megan Abbott nailed it in ‘Dare Me’   Abbott writes with an unforgettable visceral intensity that makes the self-contained world of the cheerleading team come alive.    The incessant texting, the black market in Adderall,  the taking it to the next level all ring true.

“Twice last week she didn’t call for our late-night recap, our laying forth of the maneuvers of the day, who humiliated herself, whose bra is tatty, and whose fat ass is fatting up the whole squad.  We’d done these calls nightly since forever.”  

 56006_320 This is Addy speaking, Beth’s best friend and aide-de-camp until she becomes enamored of the new coach.  She is the voice of ‘Dare Me’ and in a position to understand both Beth and the new coach as well as be present as the cheerleaders practice and perform.  When a sinister suicide occurs, she is there to help us figure it out.

I expect that many female readers are familiar with Megan Abbott, but how do you sell a novel about high school cheerleaders to men?  Some reviewers have called it ‘Fight Club for girls’.



Queenpin_000At some near point Abbott will cross over into male readership, because her crime writing is so vivid and true-to-life.  It is made for the movies.  They are planning a movie of ‘Dare Me’ possibly starring Natalie Portman.

I notice that Megan Abbott has written several novels before, and they all have lurid covers just like the old noir novels of the 1950s and 1960s.





‘A Moveable Famine’ by John Skoyles – Poets in Training

‘A Moveable Famine’ by John Skoyles    (2014) – 294 pages


How does one get to be a poet or literary fiction writer in the United States?  There are a few places here that actively encourage literary careers; the Iowa Writers Workshop in Iowa City, Iowa and the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown, Massachusetts and Yaddo in Sarasota Springs, New York are three such places.

 “We were hell-bent to become poets and all poets stood in our way.”

 In ‘A Moveable Famine’, John Skoyles remembers his time spent at these places in the 1970s as a young man wanting to become a poet. The names of some of the participants have been changed so I suppose this book is fiction, but it very much has the feel of a memoir.

These coming-of-age memories are presented here in an offhand, slapdash style which mostly avoids the pitfall of sounding pretentious when dropping the names of famous participants and teachers.  Writers such as Denis Johnson, Stanley Kunitz, Robert Creeley, Raymond Carver, and Gregory Corso do pass through these pages.

Although some of these young aspiring poets may lack for money, one thing they do not lack is ambition.   Occasionally they criticize each other:  “He was disparaged as a lunatic and a minor lunatic at that.”

This being the Seventies, a lot of time is spent in smoky bars and hooking up with members of the opposite or same sex.  Most of the participants in these workshops appear to be males.  Females in this memoir are more likely to be seen as potential bed mates than as serious poets themselves.

 “I’m glad you cut all the adjectives and adverbs – they were like sexy cheerleaders distracting from the game. “     

 Since the memories are haphazard, sometimes sound literary advice can be hidden among the rest.  Take the following from Allen Ginsberg.

 “Yes, I still follow movements of my own mind & keep notebook for Musings.  Only raw mind creates surprises, not deliberate calculation – What’s unknown more poetic than conscious known.” –  Allen Ginsberg

 For me, ‘A Moveable Famine’ kind of loses its energy when we switch from Iowa to Provincetown.  Skoyles at Provincetown is no longer a beginner in the poetry racket, and somehow it feels like we are traveling over the same ground as at Iowa with nearly all different characters.  It is difficult for a reader to switch playing fields halfway through a book.  Perhaps it would have been better to limit the memoirs to just Iowa but go a bit deeper with them.



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